48 volt charger technology has kept pace with the technology revolution, as in most other areas, and so current battery charging philosophy uses 3 stage (or 2 or 4 stage) microprocessor regulated charging profiles. These are the "smart chargers", and quality units generally are not found in retail stores. The three stages or steps in lead acid battery charging are bulk, absorption, and float mode(or sometimes complete shut off in some cases). Qualification, or equalization are sometimes considered another stage, usually for promotional purposes. It is important to use battery manufacturer's recommendations on charging procedures and voltages, or a quality microprocessor controlled charger, to maintain battery capacity and service life.
An older 48 volt charger would feature a fixed charging voltage, high enough to "force" energy (amps) into the battery pack. The lower the initial battery pack voltage (state of discharge), the easier this forcing process is, so you may see the amp meter (if so equipped) run up to the charger's maximum output amperage, and remain there for some time. As the battery pack voltage rises, as it does as the state of charge increases, the harder it is for the 48 volt charger to force the amps in, so the amp rate decreases. Eventually, the charger reaches a point where it's output voltage can't force any more into the battery pack, so current almost stops, but depending on where this voltage point is, it may be high enough to overcharge over time, or keep the batteries in the gassing stage, drying out a flooded type battery. This type of charger should be monitored for this reason, and disconnected when the amp meter drops to the low point. Some of the older technology units have timers, and depending on the setting and battery charge status at the beginning of the charge cycle, may end up over charging if set too long, or under charging, if the timer is not set long enough. Either condition can damage batteries, overcharging causing damage quicker. Repeated undercharging allows sulphation to build up, and eventually harden on the plates, diminishing battery capacity. Diminished run time on batteries that are not particularly old is the usual symptom of this sulphation, as in a golf cart that sits unmaintained for several months a year.
The "smart chargers" are profiled with contemporary charging philosophy in mind, and also take information from the battery pack to provide maximum charge benefit with minimum observation. The microprocessor allows a full charge cycle without need of setting a timer, and doesn't undercharge or overcharge, finishing in a long term maintenance mode (float mode), or shutting completely off and monitoring the pack. This allows proper battery management and maximum battery life, if used regularly.
True Gel batteries generally require a specific charge profile, and a gel specific or gel selectable or gel suitable charger is called for. The peak charging voltage for Gel batteries is 2.3 to 2.36 volts per cell, and for a 48 volt charger this works out to 55.2 to 56.6 volts, which is lower than a wet or AGM type battery needs for a full charge. Exceeding this voltage in a true Gel battery can cause bubbles in the electrolyte gel, and permanent damage, as the bubbles in the gel do not dissipate when the over voltage condition ceases.
The BULK stage in a 48 volt charger involves about 80% of the recharge, wherein the charge current is held constant (in a constant current charger), and voltage increases. The properly sized charger will give the battery as much current as it will accept up to charger capacity (25% of battery capacity in amp hours), and not raise a wet battery over 125° F, or an AGM or GEL (valve regulated) battery over 100° F. The target voltage for a 48 volt charger for AGM or some flooded batteries is 2.4 to 2.45 volts per cell, which is 57.6 to 58.8 volts.
The ABSORPTION stage (the remaining 20%, approximately) in the AGM/flooded 48 volt charger has the charger holding at the absorption voltage (between 57.6 VDC and 58.8 VDC, depending on charger set points) and decreasing the current until the battery pack is fully charged. If the battery pack won't hold a charge, or the current does not drop after the expected recharge time, the battery pack may have some permanent sulphation.
The FLOAT stage is where the charge voltage is reduced to around 2.25 volts per cell, which is around 54.0 VDC and held constant, while the current is reduced to less than 1% of battery capacity. This mode can be used to maintain a fully charged battery pack indefinitely. Some chargers shut off instead of maintaining a float voltage, and monitor the batteries, initiating a charge cycle if necessary.
Recharge time can be approximated by dividing the amp hours to be replaced by 90% of the rated output of the charger. For example, a 100 amp hour battery pack with a 10 % discharge would need 10 amps replaced. Using a 5 amp 48 volt charger, we have 10 amp hours/(.9x5) amps = 2.22 hour recharge time estimate. A deeply discharged battery pack deviates from this formula, requiring more time per amp to be replaced.
Recharge frequency recommendations vary from expert to expert. It appears that depth of discharge affects battery life more than frequency of recharge. Basically, lead acid batteries, including the sealed types (AGM and Gel) like to be kept fully charged when possible. For example, recharging when the equipment is not going to be used for a while (meal break or whatever), may keep the average depth of discharge above 50% for a service day. This basically applies to battery applications where the average depth of discharge falls below 50% in a day, and the battery can be fully recharged once during a 24 hour period, as in an industrial application. This is called "opportunity charging".
Equalization is essentially a controlled over charge. Some charger manufacturers call the peak voltage the charger attains at the end of the BULK mode (absorption voltage) an equalization voltage, but technically it's not. Higher capacity wet (flooded) batteries sometimes benefit from this procedure, particularly the physically tall batteries. The electrolyte in a wet battery can stratify over time, if not cycled occasionally. In equalization, the voltage is brought up above typical peak charging voltage, well into the gassing stage, and held for a fixed (but limited) period. This stirs up the chemistry in the entire battery, "equalizing" the strength of the electrolyte, and knocking off any loose sulphation that may be on the plates.
The construction of the sealed batteries (AGM and Gel), all but eliminates any stratification, and most all manufacturers of this type do not recommend it (advising against it). Some manufacturers (notably Concorde) list a procedure, but observing voltage and time specifications are critical to avoid battery damage.
A 48 volt charger can be had from a low milliamp output (300, 500 milliamps), up to 20 amps, that will plug into a 115 volt wall outlet. Some of the smaller units are unregulated, and simply have a fixed voltage output, like the chargers of old. These tend to take longer to charge, and should be avoided when possible. Smaller amp capacities are appropriate for smaller batteries, like electronic and security type applications or kid scooters in the 1.3 to 12 amp hour range. They also can be used for maintenance on larger batteries. A medium amp output 48 volt charger would be in the range of 10 amps or so, and be used for many applications using about 100 amp hours of battery and up, or applications with a constant amp load (power supply application). For a power supply type situation, the constant draw should be a low percentage of the charger maximum amp capacity, to keep the charger from going back into the boost or bulk stage. Larger units in the 48 volt charger models are about 18 to 20 amps output (except commercial, 220 VAC input types, or 3 phase). These are used in large amp hour battery banks, or applications desiring faster recharge times. Sometimes the larger units are used where a generator is the AC power source, and generator run time is a prime consideration.
Most battery manufacturers recommend sizing the charger at about 25% of the battery capacity (ah = amp hour capacity). Thus, a 100 ah 48 volt battery pack would take about a 25 amp 48 volt charger (or less). Larger chargers may be used to decrease charge time, but may decrease battery life. Smaller chargers are fine for long term floating, e.g. a 2 or 4 amp "smart charger" can be used for battery maintenance between higher amp cycle use, but would be inefficient or burn up if used to bulk charge large capacity, deeply discharged batteries.
For more information, or 48 volt charger application specific recommendations, email us or call the tech line.